*Blogs*

- Project Management Terms
- Agile - The Definition of Continuous Change
- Servant Leadership - A Key Leadership Style in Agile
- 6 Steps to making reasonable decisions
- What is the BOSCARD method
- PEST Analysis: How Political, Economic, Social, and Technological Factors Impact Your Business
- 49 Processes in Project Management
- What is Aggregate Planning in Project Management?
- 25 PMP Formulas you must remember to pass the PMP exam
- Example with formulas Earned Value, Cost Variance and Schedule Variance
- Example with formular Cost Performance Index (CPI), Schedule Performance Index (SPI) and Estimate at Completion (EAC)
- Example with formulas Beta Value in PERT, Expected Monetary Value (EMV) and Risk Priority Number
- Example with formular Variance at Completion, Estimate to Complete (ETC) and To Complete Performance Index (TCPI)
- Example with formular Standard Deviation, Communication Channels and Cost plus Percentage of Cost
- Example with formular Cost plus Fixed Fee, Cost plus Award Fee and Cost plus Incentive Fee
- Example with formular Return on Investment (ROI), Payback Period and Cost Benefit Ratio
- Example with formular Present Value (PV), Future Value (FV), Target Price and Point of Total Assumption

- Kanban Board - Agile Project Chart
- Gantt Chart - Roadmap Project Chart
- What is a Timeline View in Project Management?
- PERT Chart - The Most Popular Project Management Diagram
- Work-Breakdown Structure (WBS) Chart
- Flowchart in Project Management
- Cause-Effect Project Charts - Fishbone Diagram
- Burn-up and Burn-down Project Charts
- Bar Chart in Project Management
- What is Pareto Chart
- What is Pie Chart
- What is Control Chart
- What is Matrix Diagram
- What is Critical Path Diagram
- What is Cumulative Flow Project Chart
- What is Enterprise Environmental Factors
- What is Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
- What is Cost Baseline
- What is Cost-Benefit Analysis
- What is Cost Engineering?
- What is Cost Management Plan
- What is Cost of Quality?
- What is Cost Overrun?
- What is Cost Performance Index?
- What is Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract?
- What is Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract?
- What is Cost Plus Percentage Of Cost Contract
- What is Cost Reimbursable Contract?

# Example with formular Standard Deviation, Communication Channels and Cost plus Percentage of Cost

**13. Standard Deviation**

Formula: Standard Deviation (σ) = (Pessimistic – Optimistic) / 6

Standard Deviation expressed by the character ‘σ’ represents the degree to which the values can change within a project. Let's imagine a task that takes 4 days to complete in the best case and 16 days to complete in the worst case. You would calculate standard deviation as

(Pessimistic – Optimistic) / 6

(16-4)/6

Standard deviation would be 2 in this case.

**14. Communication Channels**

Formula: Communication Channels = n(n-1) / 2

In a project, communication is key. This formula is used to measure the number of communication channels needed in a project. Here ‘n’ represents the number of stakeholders. If there are 12 stakeholders in the project, there will be communication channels between each stakeholder. If you are a stakeholder then you will be part of 11 communication channels. Similarly, every other stakeholder will be a part of 11 channels. This is the n-1 calculation. This number needs to be divided in two to remove the duplicate channels because your channel with a particular stakeholder and their channel with you should not be counted twice. In this scenario of 12 stakeholders the calculation will be as follows:

= n(n-1) / 2

12 (12-1)/2 = 66

We have 66 Communication channels in this case.

**15. Cost plus Percentage of Cost**

Formula: Cost plus Percentage of Cost = Cost + n%

This is a type of contract that is in the sellers' favor where the buyer agrees to pay all the costs incurred by the seller and adds a percentage of the total cost as payment. ‘n’ represents the agreed percentage that will be paid on top of the cost incurred. If n is 10% and the cost is 50. In this case the cost-plus percentage of cost will be calculated as:

Cost + n%

50 + (50 x 10/100)

=55

In this the cost the buyer pays more when there is an increase in the cost incurred. If the cost increases to 60 the buyer will need to pay 66.